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هایپراکوزیس(بیش شنوایی)

 

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بیش شنوایی یک وضعیت پزشکی است که طی آن شنوایی فرد نسبت به اصوات خاصی حساس تر شده و باعث می شود آن اصوات،بلندتر از حالت واقعی به نظر برسند.این حساسیت غیرطبیعی به صدا در پی تغییراتی در نحوه پردازش اصوات در مغز به وجود می آید و معمولا در زیر و بمی های (فرکانس های) خاصی رخ می دهد.

این عارضه معمولا بیش از یک دلیل دارد و اغلب همراه با دیگر عارضه شنوایی معمول که وزوز نامیده می شود،می باشد.در صورتی که اقدام درمانی-مدیریتی لازم برای این اختلال انجام نگیرد،می تواند منجر به افزایش سطح استرس،نگرانی و فونوفوبیا(ترس روانشناختی از صدا) شود.

علایم هایپراکوزیس:

هایپراکوزیس می تواند باعث بشود فرد از برخی اصوات مانند نویزهای ترافیکی،نویز ماشین آلات و اصوات تیز و کوتاه ناراحت شده و گاهی برایش غیرقابل تحمل شوند.حساسیت شدید به صدا و نوع اصوات آزاردهنده از شخصی به شخص دیگر متفاوت است.

شایعترین علت این عارضه،قرار گرفتن در معرض صداهای بلند خطرناک،وجود مشکلات شنوایی و تعادل و سابقه قرارگیری دائمی در سکوت مطلق می باشد.در بعضی موارد،ممکن است به دنبال ضربه به سر یا جراحی سر نیز اتفاق افتد.

دو نوع بسیار شایع بیش شنوایی عبارتند از :

-بیش شنوایی حلزونی: آسیب به اندام حسی شنوایی(حلزون شنوایی در گوش داخلی) که منجر به حساسیت زیاد مغز نسبت به برخی اصوات می شود.

-بیش شنوایی وستیبولار: نوعی بیش شنوایی که دستگاه وستیبولار(تعادل) فرد را نیز متاثر کرده و علاوه بر اینکه حساسیت زیاد به اصوات و/یا وزوز گوش و کم شنوایی وجود دارد،منجر به تهوع،گیجی و احساس سقوط نیز می شود.

درمان

بیش شنوایی معمولا با روش هایی مشابه وزوز گوش درمان (مدیریت) می شود،با استفاده از نویز پهن باند، درمان های مبتنی بر موسیقی ،غنی سازی صوتی محیط و صوت درمانی که باعث افزایش سطح تحمل مغز نسبت به اصوات و فرکانس های خاصی می شود.

برای انتخاب مناسب ترین شیوه درمانی-مدیریتی،باید بین انواع اختلالات با شکایت از آزاردهندگی صوتی،افتراق قائل شد.

برخی اختلالات مانند فونوفوبیا،میزوفونیا،سنردم ۴S و …نیز علائمی مشابه هایپراکوزیس دارند که متخصصان شنوایی شناسی،بسته به نوع اختلال،درمان هافارجاعات و مشاوره های لازم را به مراجعان ارائه می دهند.

اختلال بیش شنوایی یا هایپراکوزیس در کودکان مبتلا به اتیسم نیز شایع است.

 

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